According to the world trade organization, in recent years, Global trade growth began to lower than the global GDP (gross domestic product) growth rate, which led to the people began to discuss the "reverse globalization" phenomenon. The actual situation is not optimistic, today, Europe and the United States, Europe and the United States, the anti globalization, anti free trade politics has brought great uncertainty to the world economy. Britain from Europe, the United States Trump doctrine, the French national front, the German right, and so on. Since modern times, western countries have been leading the globalization, and if there is no Western push, it is difficult to understand the economic order of the world today. Freedom of trade has always been a part of the development of the western economy, and it has been regarded as a soft power by the West. But now the free trade in the West has become a word for everyone to avoid the use of.
Despite the existence of anti globalization, it has never been the mainstream trend of thought, such as today, which will inevitably affect the political ecology and economic and trade policy of the West. Although the western Chinese always criticized the various "wall", but now he is beginning to the western wall. Britain has wall to block the refugees, Trump also suggested that in the United States and the Mexico border wall to block migration. The West has more invisible wall against the development of globalization, such as the western countries always on "national security" and "environmental protection" and "our jobs" as reasons for refusal from countries such as China investors.
However, the "anti globalization" is not to say that there is no globalization, it is said that the Western led globalization has suffered tremendous difficulties, and even setbacks, and the West itself is difficult to act as a leader in the global. At the same time, the globalization of developing countries represented by China seems to be in the ascendant. China, India and other BRIC countries have been integrated into the world economy, and in the world economic system is playing an increasingly large role. Especially Chinese, Chinese advocate "The Belt and Road" is to globalization (at least in the region) into a powerful force. However, compared with western developed countries, the developing countries' economies are still relatively small, the Western globalization power is insufficient, and inevitably have a negative impact on globalization.
Leading role is China's opportunity
From the perspective of the history of the world economy, before the United States, the British Empire played a leading role in the world of globalization. Now the United States is willing to be more than the lack of power, China needs will also play a leading role in the. China's leading role is not only due to the objective, but also the opportunity of china. From the objective conditions, China is the world's second largest economy, despite the economic growth in the new normal, but even the rapid growth of its economy will surpass the United States in the near future. At the same time, China is the world's largest manufacturing base and the largest trading nation, but also Chinese in recent decades of globalization have good experience in the country, not long time after accession to the world trade organization, Chinese GDP doubled. Although the rapid growth is caused by a lot of factors, but open policy is undoubtedly a very important factor. More important is that this is China's opportunity, that is, in the process of moving towards the world, the opportunity to continue to take advantage of the opportunity of peaceful rise.
China to lead globalization, we must face several major challenges and choices. The first is to promote the process of globalization from the west to learn from the experience and lessons. Here is the most important thing in the process of globalization of wealth creation and distribution problems, globalization will undoubtedly create wealth and other benefits, but the distribution of wealth and interests among various countries and regions and various social groups with high inequality. Globalization has created the wealth and benefits of the flow of the leading globalization process of a few people, mainly capital, and many social groups did not get the benefits, and some even become victims. As a result, globalization has led to unfair distribution of income, social high degree of differentiation. Even more serious is that, in the context of globalization, the middle class has become smaller and smaller. In western countries, especially the United States had a large middle class, is the cornerstone of democracy, but now the middle class is reduced, directly led to the change of internal political ecology, the functioning of democratic politics is not sustainable.
If China is to lead the globalization, it must be re constructed to make it more inclusive. At the very least, globalisation must reduce the difference between rich and poor, rather than continue to expand. At the same time, governments need to work together to control the capital's ability to reach a balance between pro business and the people. Of course, the capital itself needs to be self controlled. Capital mobility is strong, play a leading role in globalization. However, once the world's social unrest up, the capital will be the victims. For the government, it is necessary to prevent globalization as an effective tool to avoid tax.
Second, China needs to cooperate with other countries to find a new impetus for globalization. From the technical level, globalization has a new impetus, and the Internet financial performance was the most significant, however, the capital itself does not constitute a new wave of globalization, the government must build the platform for globalization. Today, the globalization suffered difficulties, including Chinese countries began to emphasize the regional model of "globalization", such as "China Belt and Road Initiative, mostly in Asia, the overall regional economic partnership (RCEP), and the US led trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) and cross trade and the Atlantic the investment partnership agreement (TTIP) are similar to. China can press ahead with regional trade liberalization in the face of difficulties in the US led regional trade partnership. Has a great space in this area, for example, can be upgraded version of the bilateral free trade agreement can be extended to bilateral multilateral, also around the "economic and trade cooperation The Belt and Road" structure in different forms.
Third, China needs a more advanced internal opening. Chinese advocate "The Belt and Road" has achieved initial success. With the implementation of Chinese capital, will accelerate the "go out", to promote the economic development of the country along the border, to help balance the world economy. However, "Belt and Road Initiative" is a two-way street, rather than a one-way road. The light is not Chinese capital outflow, but also need the inflow of foreign capital; otherwise, "The Belt and Road" will cause Chinese itself "hollowing out", economic development will be unsustainable. "Coming into" foreign capital is also part of China's leading globalization. In this regard, China has to play an important role, just as the United States played a major role in World War II. This is mainly because of China's middle class and the consumer market, if the United States does not open up a huge consumer market, there is no global people see today. China's "going out" and foreign "coming in" is an integral part of the globalization of the two parts of the country.
Today, China itself is encountered by globalization, such as the decline in trade and investment, and the domestic level of openness is not enough. Chinese leadership to promote free trade China determination needless to say, for example, the new Chinese has set up many free trade zone, is to promote free trade. However, there is no major breakthrough in the free trade area, mainly internal problems. For example, the negative list is still too long, free trade is stuck in the "internal trade", the left hand to the right hand, right hand things into the left hand. Because the homogeneity is too strong, it is difficult to have a breakthrough in the system, which requires a greater degree of China and a higher level of openness. Through the introduction of external factors is undoubtedly the most effective way, which has been proved by the open history of the past. Before China's accession to the world trade organization, a number of social groups have considered foreign investment as a "wolf" ". Anyway, at the initiative of "wolf" after Chinese economic change. Similarly, today can not simply foreign capital as a wolf, if it is such a mentality, the degree of openness is bound to reduce. Unfortunately, in many ways, the degree of openness has been reduced, for example, some people put the "independent innovation" as a strong nationalist interpretation, to understand the door to their own innovation. Greater openness will undoubtedly require forward-looking political judgments and strong political support.
Chinese should have "free trade" banner
Fourth, China needs to deal with the relationship between the existing global trading system and rules. In this regard, in the case of the West has no ability, China should take over the West free trade banner. Free trade should not be interpreted as an overly ideological or political interpretation, that is to say that free trade should not be regarded as the west, but should be regarded as the common heritage of mankind and the value of. Free trade is not always there, but from the experience and lessons of the West. In the early development of the western economy, so-called free trade is closely associated with colonialism and imperialism, western open the door with other guns. After the loss of legitimacy of colonialism and imperialism, the western countries began to develop the international rules and regulations for the maintenance and promotion of free trade. Obviously, the system and rules are far more than the powerful guns civilization.
Generally speaking, free trade is very beneficial to the developing countries, including China. Compared with other countries, Chinese is today the world's most globalized country, whether it is economic volume, the scale of trade or economic development in the future, all the objective factors determine the Chinese in the process of globalization, the function of the. Especially important is that China in the process of promoting the process of globalization, and then can not repeat the western colonialism and imperialism. Under such circumstances, China can make full use of the "free trade" system and rules established by the western countries. In a reasonable area, China need to reform their own system, continue to "integration", but not refuse; in the unreasonable place, Chinese can cooperate with other countries to modify and improve the rules; in new areas of need, China can also lead a new set of rules. In either case, the rules of world trade is not only the "write" problem, it is the implementation of the problem, if the rules were not accepted by other countries, the best rule is useless, the rules can be implemented, no matter who wrote the rules, we must consider all relevant national interests.
Existing rules can help China "go out", also can help China to protect the interests of overseas. However, China can not be too idealistic, fantasy existing rules can be for China to open up a world market. In the exploitation of the world market, Chinese has not available in many other countries, namely China can implement the "two legs", namely, state-owned enterprises and private enterprises. China's state-owned enterprises in the development of overseas markets to take a very important role in the overseas development of the market is facing a huge risk, the private enterprises can not afford. In the implementation of the strategy of "going out" since, state-owned enterprises can be said to be a "money" broke the overseas market. Although western countries always use Chinese as new colonialism or imperialism, but China "go out" and did not use a shot, even if Chinese go are highly political and economic risk. At the same time, China's private enterprises can enter the market in the West and other countries according to the existing rules. Compared with the state-owned enterprises, private enterprises are small, and the west is regarded as a "threat" of national security, which has more opportunities to enter the western market. However, whether it is state-owned enterprises or private enterprises, once went overseas, it needs protection, and the existing international trade and investment system, it is an effective protection mechanism.
To a great extent, inherited the Western determined free trade system and rules, on the basis of this difference, continue to promote the globalization, has become an effective means of peaceful rise Chinese. At the end of the twenty national group summit in Hangzhou, China has put forward its own program for globalization. "China scheme" is not to overthrow the existing system and rules, but the existing system and the rule of complement and innovation, or to say, "China scheme" on Chinese as the "leader" of globalization. Chinese to make the world more free, instead of.